EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION
Communication has improved and evolved to facilitate our daily activities. In the 21st century, everything related to communication utilizes technology to ‘send out’ or disseminate information to a wider audience. Information can be ‘sent out’ in many ways. The inventions of cellular phones, television and other electronic devices are important in enhancing communication.
WHAT IS ICT?
ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
tools to transmit information are the telephone, television and radio.
We need information to make decisions and to predict the future. For example, scientists can detect the formation of a tsunami using the latest technology and warn the public to avoid disasters in the affected areas.
Information is knowledge and helps us to fulfill our daily tasks. For example, forecasting the stock exchange market.
Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interactions. Previously, people communicated through sign or symbols, performing drama and poetry. With the advent of technology, these ‘older’ forms of communication are less utilised as compared to the use of the Internet, e-mail or video conferencing.
Communication is important in order to gain knowledge. With knowledge, we are more confident in expressing our thoughts and ideas.
Technology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and products that fulfill human needs. Technology is vital in communication.
Telephone and fax machines are the devices used in extending communication.
To broadcast information such as news or weather reports effectively. Radio, television, satellites and the World Wide Web (www) are powerful tools that can be used.
In 3500 BC, the Sumerians developed cuneiform writing. In 1500 BC, the Phoenicians developed the alphabet In 105 BC, Tsai Lun of China invented paper. In 1454, the first printing began with the creation of a printing machine. In 1793, the telegraph line was invented. In 1876, the first telephone was introduced. In 1925, television was made known to public. In 1941, the computer was created. In 1958, the photocopier machine was introduced. In 1963, the communication satellite was introduced. In 1969, the first Internet known as ARPANET was introduced.
FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956)
The first generation of computer were huge, slow, expensive and often unreliable. In 1946, two Americans, Presper Eckert and Willian Mauchly build the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It use vacuum tube instead of mechanical switches of the MARK 1.
In 1951, Eckert and Mauchly build the UNIVAC, which could calculate at the rate of 10,000 addition per seconds.
New invention of hardware were needed with the new computer technology.
The vacuum tube was an extremely important step of the advancement of computers.In a computer, a vacuum tube which is an electronic tube about the size of light bulbs, was used as the internal computer components. Thousands of them were used.
Punched card was used to store data.
Magnetic tape was introduced in 1957. It was a faster and a more compact method of storing data. Using magnetic tape became more reliable and cost-effective.
• the vacuum tubes generated a great deal of heat causing many problems in temperature
regulation and climate control
• the tubes also burnt out frequently
• people operating the computer did not know that the problem was in the programming
• the second generation computer scientists invented something new due to lots of problem
created by vacuum tubes
SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963)
The famous computer scientists during the second generation era were:
The creation of transistor spark the production of a wave of second generation computer. Transistor was small devices use to transfer electronic signals across a resister. Transistors had many advantages compared to other hardware technology.
• transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes
• they needed no warm up time
• consumed less energy
• generated much less heat
• faster and more reliable
THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971)
In the third generation era, the IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. It came in several models and sizes.It was used for business and scientific programs. Other computer models introduced were CDC 7600 and B2500.
The development of integrated circuit (IC), signal the beginning of the third generation computers. Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961 at the Silicone Valley. Then came the integrated circuit technology, which had reduced the size and cost of computers.
It is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip of silicone. Which is also known as semi conductor. Other than that, the Magnetic Core Memory was replaced by a device called the microchip. Also the first 256 bit RAM was introduced and it was the basis for development of 1K bit RAM.
A new concept in this generation was that of a family of computer which allowed computer to be upgraded and expanded as necessary.
• Silicone chips were reliable, compact and cheaper.
• Sold hardware and software separately which created the software industry.
• customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit checks)
FOURTH GENERATION (1971-PRESENT)
It took only 55 years for the 4 generations to evolve. The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer inventions. There are many types of computer models such as:
• Apple Macintosh
In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. In 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer. Then, in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer. During the fourth generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor and storage devices were invented. A microprocessor is a specialized chip which is developed for computer memory and logic.
The microprocessor is a large-scale integrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors. The transistors on this one chip are capable of performing all of the functions of a computer's central processing unit.
• Computers became 100 times smaller than ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Computer) the first computer
• Gain in speed, reliability and storage capacity
• Personal and software industry boomed
FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND)
The fifth generation computers are technologically advance and are still being development to become more efficient.
The inventions of new hardware technology in the fifth generation have grown rapidly including many other modern computer devices such as :
• silicone chips
• virtual reality
• intelligent systems
• programs which translate languages
NEW ERA COMPUTER
After the fifth generation computer, the technology of computer has become more advanced, modern and sophisticated. The latest invention in the era of computers are :
• Super Computers
• Mainframe Computers
• Mini Computers
• Personal Computers
• Mobile Computers
In the new era of computers, expert system such as teleconferencing and speech-recognition system have been invented as part of modern world communication tools.
08 March 2011
19 July 2010
We announced that the worldâ€™s first brain controlled gaming headset is available in February, when we read about it on the official website and learned about its cool features. These cool features convinced us to include the EPOC gaming headset in this article covering the latest gadgets in technology, for the fact that it allows you to control games based on thoughts and emotions.
The company that created it is Emotiv, focused on bringing solutions built with brain computer interface technologies.
Their EPOC uses your electrical signals from around the brain, processes them, and translates these into â€œmagical powersâ€ and object manipulation. The headset understands immersion, meditation, excitement, frustration, tension, laugh, smile, crossed eye, wink, anger, shock, horizontal eye movement, grimace, pull, push, drop, lift, rotate, and the even the power of making things disappear in video games.
While wearing it, you can control your web camera and mouse cursor movement on the desktop. Imagine how exciting would be to use it while driving those evil GTA 4 Cars!
Posted by ee_zamm at 11:26 AM
Latest gadgets in technology from the education sector include 3 impressive devices, one of which is already famous - the XO laptop computer brought by the OLPC non-profit organization. The innovation here involves several elements working together to enable mobile learning for children anytime, in any place. It is characterized by flexibility, ultra-low-cost, power-efficiency, responsiveness and durability, while functioning as a wireless router that connects children, teachers and families remotely, to each other or to the World Wide Web.
XO laptops have 7.5-inch self-refreshing displays of 200DPI, with a resolution of 1200 x 900 pixels and 2 available modes: transmissive full-color and reflective high-resolution black/white for increased sunlight readability. It is an ultra-low-power consumer reaching 0.2W, and can be powered manually even by small hands.
Posted by ee_zamm at 11:01 AM
08 February 2010
DEFINITION OF COMPUTER SECURITY
Computer security means protecting our computer systems and the information they contain against unwanted access, damage, destruction or modification.
We need to protect our computer from any intruders such as hackers, crackers and script kiddie.
We do not want strangers to read our e-mail, use our computer to
attack other systems, send forged e-mail from our computer, or examine personal information stored on our computer such as financial statements.
TYPES OF COMPUTER SECURITY
Three types of computer security are:
a) hardware security
b) software security/data security
c) network security
a) HARDWARE SECURITY
Hardware security refers to security measures used to protect the hardware specifically the computer and its related documents.
The examples of security measures used to protect the hardware include PC-locks, keyboard-locks, smart cards and biometric devices.
b) SOFTWARE AND DATA SECURITY
Software and data security refers to the security measures used to protect the software and the loss of data files.
Examples of security measures used to protect the software are activation code and serial number.
An example of security measure used to protect the loss of data files is the disaster recovery plan method. The idea of this plan is to store data, program and other important documents in a safe place that will not be affected by any major destruction.
c) NETWORK SECURITY
The transfer of data through network has become a common practice and the need to implement network security has become significant.
Network security refers to security measures used to protect the network system. One example of network security measures is firewall. With firewall, network resources can be protected from the outsiders.
PERSONAL COMPUTER SECURITY CHECKLIST
In order to make sure our computers are secured, here are the computer
security checklist to follow.
Do not eat, drink or smoke near the computer
Do not place the computer near open windows or doors
Do not subject the computer to extreme temperatures
Clean the equipment regularly
Place a cable lock on the computer
Use a surge protector
Store disks properly in a locked container
Maintain backup copies of all files
Stores copies of critical files off sites
Scan a floppy disk before you open it
Do not open any unknown email received
Posted by ee_zamm at 10:48 AM
17 January 2010
Every once in a while, you see some product that feels like it could start a revolution. Case in point, this conceptual laptop by designer Victor Bivol.
As you can see from the video after the jump, the purpose of this device is to open up the keyboard just like you would the laptop itself. Then you can give that keyboard a spin and it becomes a tablet like the cool ones at Wacom.
I don’t know whether it will say “Welcome” on it. Don’t you need some special technology for that?
Well, I definitely think that this is the computer for those who use their laptop for artistic purposes, you know, for drawing and stuff.
It’s definitely a step in the right direction for laptop inspiration. After all, it isn’t every day that you see something that isn’t run-of-the-mill. That was awkwardly worded, but you see what I mean.
Personally, I think that Apple needs to apply this technology to their latest version of their supposedly touchscreen notebook that we have been seeing all over.
I’m always impressed when I see some sort of concept design that looks like it could become an industry standard, and this is clearly one of them. Good luck to Mr. Bivol and his forward thinking.
Posted by ee_zamm at 11:41 PM
31 October 2009
iPod nano now has a built-in video camera that lets you spontaneously shoot video wherever you are. And that's just the beginning. It has a dramatic, polished anodized aluminum finish and a larger screen. The new Genius Mixes feature acts as your personal DJ, automatically searching your iTunes library, then making mixes you'll love. Take iPod nano anywhere and the new Pedometer counts your steps. Also making its debut: a built-in FM radio with two amazing features--iTunes Tagging and Live Pause. So the world's most popular music player now has more to play with.